Technology Act Influences

Topics: Special education, Psychology, Motivation Pages: 26 (5215 words) Published: September 7, 2014


Can There Be Improvements in Behavior with Special Needs
Children if there is a Reward System in Place
Concordia University-Portland

An Action Research Report Presented to
The Graduate Program in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Masters in Education
Concordia University
2013
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this paper was to explore behavior modification by using intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to encourage positive behavior changes in my students while helping them to understand the importance of the change. As an educator, there are consistently opportunities to positively influence their students' behavior as well as their education. I wanted to see if the idea of behavior modification was an effective method for teaching and encouraging students’ age-appropriate behaviors and social skills. The issue at hand is that the special needs students have more problematic classrooms and less resources, so to find alternative would be a great asset to the special needs educators. Behavior modification takes work and patience on the teachers and students behalf. This research was utilized to determine if it would be effective in inclusive classrooms as well as mainstream classes. The dynamics are different; however, it is worth the risk to alleviate some of the stress in the classroom.

Literature Review
According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, a child with a condition demonstrating one or more characteristics over a long period of time adversely affecting the child's educational routine is the definition of a child with an emotional behavior disability. The characteristics include an inability to learn that isn't explained by sensory, intellectual, or health factors, the lack of interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers and inability to build or maintain sufficient productive encounters in the classroom, displaying types of behavior or feelings inappropriate under normal circumstances, a mood of unhappiness or depression that is commonplace, and while in school developing physical symptoms and fears associated with personal and school factors (Gallaudet, 2012).

Analysis
Newby (1991) found that beginning teachers use extrinsic motivation such as rewards and incentives more frequently than any other classroom management technique. Rewards and extrinsic motivation may be popular, but their use in the classroom is debatable. Special educators typically use extrinsic rewards because of the nature of the students with whom they work. The study researched all of the effects that rewards may have on behavior and how it can assist however all cases may be different depending on the needs. It also discussed the dependency special needs students have on the educators as well as the fairness and mistreatment that these students may be subjected to. The consensus within the analyses shows that not only can rewards be effective at achieving short-term outcomes. They can also help build intrinsic motivation in a student. In the article “Improving behavior through differential reinforcement: a praise note system for elementary school students.” the purpose was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple behavior management system, and second, to begin the process of providing some guidance for the application of similar systems. This study was implemented to change the negative behavior in the lunchroom. The students that were sampled were approximately 200 first through fifth grade students at a rural elementary school in Northern Utah. The students were predominantly white which represented 80% of the students, and from middle to lower-middle socioeconomic backgrounds. (Wheatley et al, 2009). In special education, dealing with student behavior is important for minimizing distractions and having students focus on academic topics. It’s logical to assume that classroom management is a concern for students with disabilities who may have...

References: Browning-Wright, D., & Gurman, H. (2001). Positive intervention for serious behavior problems: Best practices in implementing the positive behavioral intervention regulations. Sacramento: California Department of Education.
Farrell, D.T., Smith, S.W., & Brownell, M.T. (1998). Teacher Perceptions of Level System Effectiveness on the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, The Journal of Special Education, p. 89-98.
Hocutt, A. M. (1996) Effectiveness of Special Education: Is Placement the Critical Factor? The Future of Children, v. 6, n. 1, p. 77-102.
Martella, R., Nelson, J., & Marchand-Martella, N. (2003). Managing disruptive behaviors in the schools. Boston: Pearson Education.
McMillan, J. (2012). Educational Research; Fundamentals for the consumer. (6th ed). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Nelson, Benner, Lane & Smith, 2004. “Academic Achievement of K-12 Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorders”, Exceptional Children, v. 71, n.1, 59-73.
Newby, T. J. (1991). Classroom motivation: Strategies of first-year teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 195–200.
O 'Neill, R. E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Storey, K., & Newton, J. S. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical guide. (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Witzel, Bradley S. & Mercer, Cecil D. (2003). Using rewards to teach students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education. 24(2), 88-96.
Date Completed:
December 5, 2013
Start Date:
November 11, 2013
End Date:
December 13, 2013
Farrell, D.T., Smith, S.W., & Brownell, M.T. (1998). Teacher Perceptions of Level System Effectiveness on the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders, The Journal of Special Education, v. 32, n. 2, p. 89-98.
Hocutt, A. M. (1996) Effectiveness of Special Education: Is Placement the Critical Factor? The Future of Children, v. 6, n. 1, p. 77-102.
Martella, R., Nelson, J., & Marchand-Martella, N. (2003). Managing disruptive behaviors in the schools. Boston: Pearson Education.
McMillan, J. (2012). Educational Research; Fundamentals for the consumer. (6th ed). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Nelson, Benner, Lane & Smith, 2004. “Academic Achievement of K-12 Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorders”, Exceptional Children, v. 71, n.1, 59-73.
Newby, T. J. (1991). Classroom motivation: Strategies of first-year teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 195–200.
O 'Neill, R. E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Storey, K., & Newton, J. S. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical guide. (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Witzel, Bradley S. & Mercer, Cecil D. (2003). Using rewards to teach students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education. 24(2), 88-96.
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