Special Education Key Terms and Definitions
0. Disability an inability to do something; a diminished capacity to perform in a specific way. 0. Handicap a disadvantage imposed on an individual .
0. Prevalence the percentage of a population or number of individuals who have a particular exceptionality. 0. Special Education specially designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student. 0. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) a legal term referring to the fact that exceptional children must be educated in as normal an environment as possible. 0. Regular Education Initiative a philosophy that maintains that general education, rather than special education, should be primarily responsible for the education of students with disabilities. 0. Inclusive Schools Movement a reform movement designed to restructure general education schools and classrooms so they better accommodate all students including those with disabilities. 0. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) civil rights legislation for persons with disabilities that ensures nondiscrimination in a broad range of activities. 0. Individualized Education Plan (IEP) a plan for each exceptional child that includes the present level of performance, instructional goals, educational services, and criteria and procedures for determining that objectives are being met. 0. Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) a plan to provide services for young children with disabilities and the families of those children that includes assessment and statement of goals, needed services, plans for implementation, family involvement, coordination of services, and transition into preschool. 0. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) a federal law stating that to receive funds under the act, every school system in the nation must provide free, appropriate public education for every child between the ages of three and twenty-one, regardless of how or how seriously he or she may be disabled. 0. Normalization a philosophical belief in special education that every individual, even the most disabled, should have an educational and living environment as close to normal as possible. 0. Deinstitutionalization a social movement of the 1960s and 1970s whereby large numbers of persons with mental retardation and/or mental illness were moved from large mental institutions into smaller community homes or into the homes of their; recognized as a major catalyst for integrating persons with disabilities into society. 0. Full inclusion all students with disabilities are placed in their neighborhood schools in general education classrooms for the entire day. 0. Continuum of alternative placements the full range of alternative placements, from those assumed to be least restrictive to those considered most restrictive 0. Disability rights movement a loosely organized effort to advocate for the rights of people with disabilities through lobbying legislators and other activities. 0. Handicapism a term used by activists who fault the unequal treatment of individuals with disabilities. 0. Mainstreaming the placement of students with disabilities in general education classes for all or part of the day and for all or only a few classes. 0. Cooperative learning a teaching approach in which the teacher places students with heterogeneous abilities (for example, some might have disabilities) together to work on assignments. 0. Peer-mediated instruction the deliberate use of a student’s classroom peer(s) to assist in teaching an academic or social skill 0. Peer tutoring a method that can be used to integrate students with disabilities in general education classrooms, based on the notion that students can effectively tutor one another. 0. Universal design the design of new buildings, tools, and instructional programs to make them useable by the widest possible population of potential users. 0. Manifestation determination a procedure in which school officials determine whether a student's...
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