Explain how the above-mentioned information is likely to benefit a marketer?
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2. What is technology transfer? What are the directions of such transfers?
Technology transfer is a fast-growing activity in the U.S. research and development system, and one which has received substantial attention from governments, industry, and universities. The exact nature of this activity is difficult to pin down, partly because the term has many different connotations. Some of the varieties of technology transfer commonly discussed in business periodicals (such as the Wall Street Journal ) include: • International technology transfer: the transfer of technologies developed in one country to firms or other organizations in another country. In the U.S., this issue is often associated with the undesired transfer of weapons technology to "hostile" nations. • North-South technology transfer: activities for the transfer of technologies from industrial nations (the North) to less-developed countries (the South), usually for the purpose of accelerating economic and industrial development in the poor nations of the world. • Private technology transfer: the sale or other transfer of a technology from one company to another. • Public-private technology transfer: the transfer of technology from universities or government laboratories to companies. While all four types of technology transfer are of concern to businesses, this overview will deal mostly with the first two types. International technology transfer and North-South technology transfer these activities tend to be driven directly by foreign policy and national defense concerns, while the other two types are driven by a balance of corporate and policy interests. WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER?
Technology is information that is put to use in order to accomplish some task. Transfer is the movement of technology via some communication channel from one individual or organization to another. Technology is the useful application of knowledge and expertise into an operation. Technology transfer usually involves some source of technology, group which posses specialized technical skills, which transfers the technology to a target group of receptors who do not possess those specialized technical skills, and who therefore cannot create the tool themselves (Carayannis et al., 1997). In the United States especially, the technology transfer experience has pointed to multiple transfer strategies, two of which are the most significant: the licensing of intellectual property rights and extending property rights and technical expertise to developing firms. The major categories of technology transfer and commercialization involve the transfer of: 1. technology codified and embodied in tangible artifacts 2. processes for implementing technology
3. knowledge and skills that provide the basis for technology and process development. WHY TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY?
Most technology transfer takes place because the organization in which a technology is developed is different from the organization that brings the technology to market. The process of introducing a technology into the marketplace is called technology commercialization. In many cases, technology commercialization is carried out by a single firm. The firm's employees invent the technology, develop it into a commercial product or process, and sell it to customers. In a growing number of cases, however, the organization that creates a technology does not bring it to the market. There are several potential reasons for this: • If the inventing organization is a private company, it may not have the resources needed to bring the technology to market, such as a distribution network, sales organization, or simply the money and equipment...
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