CULTURE IN CROATIA
of Hofstede's Dimensions
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb
Izvorni znanstveni rad
Primljeno: 8. 4. 2011.
Faced with the challenge to increase the level of innovation in science and technology many societies have developed a
national innovation system as a form of public policy programs. If innovative culture is crucial for the adoption and development of new technologies, it is of great importance to explore the concept and possibly find out which type of culture is more innovative than others. Presented in the paper are the results of the first empirical study of innovation culture in Croatia based on a survey on the representative sample of Croatian population. Drawing on Hofstede's concept of dimensions of national culture, Croatian national innovation culture is operationalized as a set of value orientations and norms (uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity – femininity, long-term or short-term orientation, and power distance). Four scales based on Hofstede's dimensions were constructed, which mainly support the content validity of his concept. They could be used to measure differences in innovative capacity between groups and regions. The analysis shows the presence of multiple dimensions of innovation culture in Croatia that might hinder innovation capacity, but this doesn't necessary lead to the conclusion that we can identify one type culture elements as the only model for strengthening the innovative culture.
Keywords: national innovation culture, dimensions of
national culture, Hofstede, Croatia
Jasminka Lažnjak, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, I. Lučića 3, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.
Development of knowledge economy relies heavily on knowledge application and knowledge use that is conventionally coined in the term of innovation. Starting with the pioneering OECD study (OECD, 1992), innovation and technological development is growingly recognized as a complex social phenomenon which opens the platform for socio-cultural research on innovation.
Since the thesis of knowledge and innovation as the basis
for development and prosperity and their embeddedness into the socio-cultural and political environment was widely accepted, it has been an incentive for social studies of science and technology and innovation studies to grow more rapidly.
Innovation became the issue very high on the agenda in various disciplines such as economy, sociology, business management, policy and cultural studies. The different rate of national innovativeness and dynamics in innovation production leads to the conclusion that the process of innovation as well as national innovation capacities are embedded in socio-cultural and political processes and therefore both are contextual, path dependent and locally specific (Mytelka and Smith, 2002; Furman et al., 2002). The concept of national innovation policy (Lundvall, 2007)
has emerged in a form of public policy programs that would
foster innovation by capitalization of science through productive use of national scientific and technological potentials. National innovation systems emphasized the crucial role of socio-economic actors to create an innovation conductive institutional environment. Apart from institutions which directly and deliberately promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge such as R&D departments, technological institutes
and universities (Freeman, 2002), some other important factors from the political and cultural environment shape the scale, direction and relative success of all innovative activities (Rammert, 2002). Therefore, innovations have become endogenous and evolving, conditioned by the social and institutional context (Furman et al., 2002;...
References: Ahmed, K. P (1998), Culture and Climate for Innovation. European Jour.
Babbie, E. (2008), The Basics of Social Research, Thomson Wadsworth.
Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P and Pinch, T. (Eds.) (1989), The Social Con.
Didero, M., Gareis, K., Marques, P Ratzke, M. et al. (2008), Differences in
European Innovation Scoreboard 2008. Comparative Analysis of Innovation Performance (2009), Pro Inno Europe paper No 10, http://www.
proinno-europe.eu/publications (retrieved, June 2010)
European Innovation Scoreboard Report (EIS) 2009 (2010), http://www.
Franke, R. H., Hofstede, G. and Bond, M. H. (1991), Cultural Roots of
Economic Performance: A Research Note
Freeman, C. (2002), Continental, National and Sub-National Innovation Systems – Complementary and Economic Growth. Research
Policy, 31 (2): 191-211
Furman, J. L., Porter, M. E. and Stern, S. (2002), The Determinants of
National Innovative Capacity
Global Innovation Index (2011), http://www.globalinnovationindex.org/
gii/main/analysis/ (accessed Jan
Hasan, I. and Tucci, C. L. (2010), The Innovation-Economic Growth
Nexus: Global Evidence
Herbig, P (1994), The Innovation Matrix: Culture and Structure Prerequi.
Herbig, P and Dunphy, S. (1998), Culture and Innovation. Cross Cul.
Hofstede, G. (1994), Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind,
London, Harper Collins.
Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture 's Consequences – Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions and Organizations across Nations, London, Sage Publications.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. and Minkov, M. (2010), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition,
New York, McGraw-Hill.
Context, http://www.geerthofstede.nl/culture/dimensions-of-nationalcultures.aspx (accessed July 2010)
GOD. 20 (2011),
Jucevičius, G. (2007), Innovation Culture: The Contestable Universality of the Concept. Social Sciences / Socialiniai Mokslai, 4 (58): 7-19.
Kaasa, A. and Vadi, M. (2008), How Does Culture Contribute to Innovation? Evidences from European Countries, Tartu, Tartu University
Press, Available at: http://www.mtk.ut.ee/orb.aw/class=file/action=
preview/id=423461/febawb63.pdf (downloaded March 2011)
Khazanchi, S., Lewis, W
D. Lasswell (Eds.), The Policy Sciences, Stanford University Press, Stanford (according to Haralambos, M. and Holborn, M. (2002), Sociologija, Golden marketing, Zagreb (in Croatian).
Lundvall, B. A. (2007), National Innovation System: Analytical Focusing
Device and Policy Learning Tool, Working paper, R2007-004, Swedish
MacKenzie, D. and Wajcman, J. (Eds.) (1999), The Social Shaping of
Technology, Second Edition, Buckingham, Open University Press.
McSweeney, B. (2002), Hofstede 's Model of National Cultural Differences and their Consequences: A Triumph of Faith – a Failure of
Minkov, M. and Blagoev, V. (2009), Cultural Values Predict Subsequent Economic Growth. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 9 (1): 5-24. doi:10.1177/1470595808101153
pdf (downloaded 20. 10. 2010)
Please join StudyMode to read the full document