Chapter 2 Summary
Organisations often face new and sometimes threatening challenges.
The 4 contemporary management functions have been around for years: planning, controlling, leading and organizing. Managers need to plan what works is to be done, organize people and materials to do it, lead and direct the workers, and impose some controls to ensure everything was done according to plan. Eg, the pyramids in Egypt.
Two significant events pre-20th century, played an important role in promoting the study of management: 1.
1776 – Adam Smith – argued the economic advantages of division of labour, and the breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks, known as job specialization. Division of labour increased productivity by increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity, by saving time lost in changing tasks. 2.
18th Century – Industrial Revolution – the main contribution of the inductrial revolution was that human power was replaced by machine power, which then made it more economical to manufacture goods in factories rather than at home. Large, efficient factories require managerial skills, as they had to ensure that demand was met, enough material was on hand to continue production, assign tasks to people, direct daily activities, coordinate various tasks, ensure the machines were still running efficiently and were kept in good condition while maintaining standards, etc.
There are 6 different approaches to management:
scientific management: an approach that involves using scientific methods to define the ‘one best way’ for a job to be done. The aim of this method is to make organizations and workers be as efficient as possible. Frederick W. Taylor was one of the first to introduce methods of scientific management. He introduced 4 principles of management: a.
develop a science for each element of an individual’s work with standardized work implements and efficient methods for all to follow b.
scientifically select workers with skills and...
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