1. Management functions: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. 2. Management roles: interpersonal, informational and decisional roles. 3. Management skills:
Technical skills: the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Human skills: the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. Conceptual skills: the mental ability to analysis and diagnose complex situations. 4. Organizational behavior: a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness. 5. According to Luthans, successful managers spend more of their time on networking than on any other activity. 6. Ethical dilemmas: situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct. 7. Dependent variable: a response that is affected by an independent variable. Independent variable: the presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable. 8. Organizational citizenship behavior: discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Chapter 2
1. Surface-level diversity and deep-level diversity.
2. Biographical characteristics: personal characteristics (such as age, gender, race and length of tenure) that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. There characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity. 3. The biographical characteristic that will grow in importance during the next decade is: age. 4. A review of the evidence suggests that workers with disabilities receive higher performance evaluations. 5. Ability: an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. 6. Groups of individuals with different types of expertise and education are more effective than homogenous groups. 7. Groups of diverse individuals will be much more effective if leaders can show how members have a common interest in the group’s success. 8. Evidence also shows that transformational leaders (who emphasis higher-order goals and values in their leadership style) are more effective in managing diverse teams. Chapter 3
1. Cognitive component: the opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective component: the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral component: an intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something. 2. Attitudes are important in organizations for their behavioral component. 3. Cognitive dissonance: any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. (Leon Festinger’s theory)
4. Major job attitudes:
Job satisfaction: a positive feeling about one’s job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. Job involvement: the degrees to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth. Organizational commitment: the degrees to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. 1) Affective commitment is an emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values. 2) Continuance commitment is the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization. 3) Normative commitment is an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons. 5. Two ways of measuring job satisfaction:
1) The single global rating: best
2) The summation of job facets, is more sophisticated,
6. What causes job satisfaction: what motivates us is not necessarily the same as what makes us happy. 7. The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework.
1. Personality: the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. 2. Personality determinants: heredity, environment and situation. 3. Personality traits: enduring...
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