Erosional and depositional landforms
Old Harry Dorset- stack
East riding of Yorkshire
The Maldives are a collection of Islands in the Indian Ocean. The Maldives are about 400 Miles southwest of India. Studland Bay is located in the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset
Depositional feature- spit
The village of Mappleton, perched on a cliff top on the Holderness coast, has approximately 50 properties. Due to the erosion of the cliffs, the village is under threat. Hard engineering
A rotational landslide involving about 1 million tonnes of glacial till cut back the 60 m high cliff by 70 m. Soft engineering
The Maldives has the lowest average height above sea level of any country (1.5 m or 4.5 ft.) The nature reserve is an area of sand dunes. These are dynamic, but often unstable and vulnerable environments. Point 1
A spit is formed- prevailing wind hits the coast at the oblique angle. A coastal management scheme costing £2 million was introduced involving two types of hard engineering - placing rock armour along the base of the cliff and building two rock groynes.
Hornsea is a seaside town on the Holderness coast
It flowed across the beach to form a semi-circular promontory 200 m wide projecting 135 m outward from the foot of the cliff. Let’s a certain area e.g. Field to flood.
The population of the Maldives is 328,536 people.
Tourists bring their problems such as litter and fire hazards (caused by barbecues and cigarette ends). Point 2
The swash carries material up the beach in the same direction as the waves. Mappleton and the cliffs are no longer at great risk from erosion Hornsea, rock armour, rock groynes, sea walls
rainfall of 140 mm in the two months before the slide took place
Because of the low elevation, the Maldives will be completely under water if sea level rises slightly Vulnerable areas and areas recently planted with marram grass (which is used to stabilise the dunes) are fenced off to limit access and damage. Point 3
This is long shore drift. Strong winds and waves curves the end of the spit foring a recurred end. The rock groynes have stopped beach material being moved south from Mappleton along the coast. Withernsea is a seaside town on the Holderness coast
The landslide is a rotational landslide degrading to a mud/debris flow which covered the rocks on the beach (platform).
The oceans are rising by 9mm per year, meaning the islanders may have to abandon their homes before the end of the century. Boardwalks have been laid through the dunes to focus tourists onto specific paths. Car parks have been provided and people are not permitted to drive onto the beach.
The sheltered area behind the spit is protected by the waves and material accumulates which means plants starts to grow here. Stacks are formed by water getting into a crack causing air bubbles. This air pops and forces the rock open. This is hydraulic action. This has increased erosion south of Mappleton.
The cliff consists of Glacial Till (sandy, silty clay) resting on a low cliff of the Middle Jurassic Scalby Formation. The Scalby Formation comprises Scalby Mudstone and Moor Grit (sandstone).
Sea walls hold back the water and new land is being reclaimed from the sea. Fire beaters are positioned within the dune area in case of a fire. Facilities including a shop, café, toilets and litter bins are provided near the car parks to focus tourists into one area.
Repeated erosion and enlargement causes the crack to produce a cave. The continued erosion forms a deeper cave until the cave breaks forming an arch e.g. Dudle door in Dorset. The increased threat of sea level rise due to climate change means that other places will need to consider the sustainability of coastal defence strategies for the future.
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